Across Germany, Poland, France and Russia, bishops, prelates and other commentators offered contrasting outlooks on Donald Trump's U.S. presidential election.
Gender Theory: Cardinal Willem Eijk of Utrecht, Netherlands, said a papal encyclical or other magisterial document "might appear to be necessary" to counter the spread of the new theory that gender can be determined by personal choice rather than by biology.
Coptic Catholic church: Egypt passed a law codifying the rights of Christians to build and renovate churches
European Catholic leaders expressed concern that the decision to leave the European Union threatened unity across the continent, but also cautioned the EU bloc to rethink its values and priorities.
A commission of Catholic bishops has called on the European Union to more actively promote peace and reconciliation to ease tensions and conflicts on country borders.
A Catholic leader in the Central African Republic said Christian-Muslim ties were affected positively by Pope Francis' Nov. 29-30 visit and his simple message of living peacefully.
Preview: Pope Francis' call -- to "express the Gospel in concrete terms" by each taking in at least one family -- appeared to endorse what many were already doing.
Congo's Catholic bishops criticized the failure of Western governments to stop the abuse of the continent's natural resources and urged church groups to follow the pope's call to mobilize.
"It is our profound conviction that exploiting these resources can contribute to improving our population's conditions of life," the bishops' commission for natural resources said in a statement in late September.
Catholic aid agencies have urged Europeans not to turn against migrants seeking refuge other countries, in what reports are calling Europe's greatest refugee movement since World War II.
Bishops urged their governments to settle a growing refugee crisis around the port of Calais, where migrants have died attempting illegal crossings of the Channel Tunnel.